Frequently Asked Questions
    Fresatura Indexabile Generale
  • What is a cutting edge angle and what is a lead angle?
    There are various international and national standards that specify the active geometry of cutting tools very precisely. The “cutting edge angle” is the angle between the main cutting edge of a milling cutter and the plane containing the direction of feed motion. "Lead angle" (or “approach angle”) is the angle complementary to the cutting edge angle, i.e. the sum of these both angles is 90°. For example, for a typical face milling cutter the cutting angle is the angle between the cutting edge and the plane, which the cutter generates. If this angle is 60°, then the lead angle will be 30°. The cutting edge angle and the lead angle are equal only for 45° milling cutters. The term "lead angle" is more commonly employed in the U.S., while "approach angle" is often used in Europe.
  • What is the difference between "face mill" and "shell mill"?
    These two terms relate to different and complementary features of milling cutters. They are not interchangeable. Milling cutters are classified according to the following main factors:
    • Machine surface type: plane, shoulder, 3D-surface, etc.
    • Cutter mounting method: on mandrel or arbor, in holder, directly in spindle
    • Structure: monolithic; assembled
    • Cutting part material: high speed steel, tungsten carbide, ceramics, etc.)
    "Face mill" characterizes a main field of application - milling flats by the cutting face of a mill. "Shell mill" refers to the design configuration of a mill: the mill has a central bore for mounting on arbor. This configuration is typical for face mills.
  • What is the difference between heavy and heavy-duty milling?
    Sometimes the terms “heavy” and “heavy-duty” are used mistakenly as synonyms. In principle, “heavy milling” (and “heavy machining") relates to milling large-sized and heavy-weight workpieces on powerful machine tools and refers more to the dimensions and mass of a workpiece. “Heavy-duty” specifies a degree of tool loading and mainly characterizes a mode of milling.
  • Which cutting conditions are considered as unfavorable and which are unstable?
    Unfavorable cutting conditions include:
    • workpiece with skin (siliceous or slag, for example)
    • significantly variable machining allowance
    • considerable impact load due to non-uniform machined surface
    • surface with high-abrasive inclusions
    Unstable cutting conditions refer to the low stability of a complete system (machine tool, workpiece holding fixture, cutting tool, workpiece) due to:
    • poor tool and workpiece holding
    • high tool overhang
    • non-rigid machine tools
    • thin-walled workpiece
    The terms "unfavorable" and "unstable" are not interchangeable.
  • How is average chip thickness measured?
    In milling, the thickness of chips is not constant and varies during cutting, depending on several factors. The average chip thickness (hm) is a virtual parameter that characterizes mechanical load on a milling cutter and a machine tool. There are different methods for calculating hm. The most common method is to compute it in relation to the half of an angle of engagement, where the latter is the central angle that corresponds to the arc of a contact between a milling cutter and a workpiece.
  • What is high pressure coolant (HPC) and ultra high pressure coolant (UHPC)?
    There are no strict definitions of high and ultra high pressure coolant (HPC and UHPC correspondingly). Traditionally, machine tools feature coolant supply at pressure 10-15 bar (145-217 psi). This level is now considered as low pressure.
    Various modern machining centers have the option to supply coolant at rates of 70-80 bar (1000-1200 psi), which is considered as high pressure coolant. Ultra high pressure coolant relates to pressure values of 100-200 bar (1450-2900 psi) and even higher.
    Some producers of CNC machine tool equipment manufacture what are known as “medium pressure” pumps; these have values of up to 50 bar (725 psi).
  • What are the benefits of milling with high pressure coolant (HPC)?
    Heat generation is a permanent feature of machining, particularly, milling. If heat generation is intensive, the conventional low pressure coolant forms a vapor layer on the surfaces of a tool and a workpiece. This layer acts as heat sealing, producing an insulating barrier and making heat transfer harder, which significantly shortens tool life.
    Pinpointed high pressure coolant penetrates the barrier and helps to overcome the problem. HPC chills chips quickly, making them hard and brittle. The chips become thinner and smaller, and they break away from the workpiece more easily. High-velocity coolant flow removes the chips. This significantly improves chip evacuation and prevents chip re-cutting.
    HPC improves tool life of a cutting edge due to reducing oxidation and adhesion wear and increasing crack strength. HPC improves chip evacuation because the chips diminish in size, and the high-velocity coolant flow takes them away easily. It allows the design of cutters with smaller chip gullet, leading to a higher number of cutter teeth. Effective cooling reduces the temperature in the cutting zone, ensuring an increased width of cut.
    Overall, HPC provides a good solution for increasing cutting speed and feed rate for boosting productivity.
  • What is the difference between milling with high pressure coolant (HPC) supply through a tool body and turning with HPC?
    In turning, a tool has one cutting edge, while a milling tool features several cutting teeth. The number of coolant outlets in the milling tool is greater. An indexable extended flute cutter, where the teeth are produced by sets of replaceable inserts, will require many more outlets.
    There is a specific relationship between pressure, velocity and flow rate for fluid, e.g. for coolant. In milling, HPC supply through the tool body demands appropriate characteristics of an HPC pump to ensure correct flow volume (flow rate) and not only to meet pressure requirements.
  • Does ISCAR provides indexable cutters for high pressure coolant milling in the standard product line?
    Yes, ISCAR provides these tools in the families of milling cutters for machining titanium and high temperature superalloys (HTSA).
  • Why are nozzles used as coolant outlets in HPC indexable milling cutters?
    There are two reasons for using nozzles as coolant outlets: technological and applicative. HPC supply through the body of a cutter requires small-diameter outlets (as well as demands regarding the shape). As manufacture of the outlets via drilling hard steel tools would encounter technological difficulties, screw-in nozzles represent a more practical option.
    If a depth of cut is smaller than the maximum cutting length of an indexable extended flute milling tool, there is no need to supply coolant to the inserts that are not involved in cutting. To improve performance, you can easy unscrew the appropriate nozzles from their holes, and then close the hole by a plug or a standard set screw.
  • Why are a significant number of HPC milling cutters special (tailor-made)?
    The main consumers of HPC milling cutters are manufacturers working with hard-to-cut materials, for example titanium alloys. In many cases, producing parts from the materials requires a high volume of metal removal. To boost productivity, manufacturers often use unique machine tools, and, to reach maximum operational rigidity, they prefer integral tools with direct adaptation to the spindle of a machine - without intermediate tooling such as arbours or holders. Specific tool diameters, cutting lengths, and overhang, as well as adaptations that vary from one manufacturer to another, demand tailor-made HPC milling cutters.
  • Che famiglie sono presenti nella linea di fresatura indexabile ISCAR?
    La linea di fresatura indexabile è composta da frese progettate per coprire le maggiori applicazioni di fresatura: spallamenti, spianature, fresatura di superfici complesse (profilatura), incavatura e scanaltuara, smussatura ecc. Ci sono inoltre famiglie progettate appositamente per fresature con elevati avanzamenti.
  • I loghi di molte famiglie ISCAR iniziano con "HELI" e frasi come "tagliente elicoidale" e "fresatura elicoidale" sono molto spesso enfatizzate. Perchè?
    All'inizio degli anni '90 ISCAR ha introdotto la famiglia HELIMILL di frese con inserti elicoidali. Il tagliente estremamente efficiente è generato dall'intersezione tra la spoglia superiore e la superficie elicoidale del lato dell'inserto. Il design delle frese HELIMILL genera una spogia positiva costante su tutta la lunghezza di taglio. Questo assicura una sensibile diminuzione della potenza assorbita garantendo un taglio dolce. La famiglia HELIMILL ha introdotto un nuovo approccio, ridefinendo gli standard di fresatura a fissaggio meccanico. Il suffisso "HELI" denomina il tagliente elicoidale.
  • Nella gamma ISCAR sono presenti linee di fresatura per alluminio?
    Sì. ISCAR ha sviluppato una gamma completa di frese indexabili specifiche per lavorazioni efficienti di alluminio. Ogni famiglia è dotata di esclusivo design del corpo fresa e di serraggio degli inserti, strutture con cartucce regolabili, ampia gamma di inserti rettificati e lappati ed inserti con riporto in PCD. La maggior parte delle frese sono dotate di refrigerazione interna. La linea ISCAR HELIALU permette lavorazioni con elevate velocità (HSM), assicurando elevati volumi di truciolo.
  • Il termine "estremamente positivo" viene utilizzato molto spesso per le frese indexabili. Cosa significa?
    Generalmente, fa riferimento agli angoli di spoglia della fresa. Le continue innovazioni nella metallurgia delle polveri permettono di poter produrre inserti con taglienti elicoidali con spoglia frontale molto inclinata rispetto al tagliente. Questo genera un angolo di spoglia molto positivo sulla fresa. La definizione "estremamente positivo" enfatizza questa caratteristica. Nota: la definizione rispecchia l'attuale stato dell'arte. In quest'ottica, l'estremamente positivo di oggi verrà considerato normale in futuro.
  • ISCAR fornisce un'ampia gamma di gradi in metallo duro. Dove si possono trovare informazioni di base sulle proprietà di un determinato grado, velocità di taglio e gamma applicativa?
    ISCAR offre cataloghi elettronici e cartacei, al cui interno sono presenti le guide con le informazioni sulla struttura del grado (tipologia di substrato, rivestimento), la gamma applicativa conforme agli standard ISO e le velocità di taglio.
  • Le frese indexabili sono dotate di refrigerazione interna?
    La maggior parte delle frese indexabili introdotte di recente sono dotate di refrigerazione interna direzionata su ogni tagliente. 
  • Ci sono frese che non hanno la refrigerazione interna. Nel caso in cui fosse necessaria, come si possono modificare le frese?
    Nella maggior parte dei casi la modifica non è necessaria. Infatti ISCAR propone viti di serraggio con ugelli regolabili per fornire una semplice soluzione al problema. Le viti non solo bloccano la fresa sull'attacco, ma assicurano un'efficiente refrigerazione nella zona di taglio. L'ugello, la parte mobile della vite, permette una semplice regolazione in base alle specifiche necessità di lavorazione.
  • In che modo è possibile garantire la corretta forza di serraggio degli inserti?
    Per le frese indexabili, ISCAR fornisce due tipologie di chiavi dinamometriche: con valori regolabili o fissi. Il primo tipo permette il settaggio entro una data gamma, mentre il secondo tipo è pre-settato su un valore fisso. Le forze di serraggio sono disponibili in cataloghi e guide tecniche. Inoltre, questi dati sono marcati anche sul corpo fresa.
  • Cosa è meglio per controllare la produttività: modificare l'avanzamento o la profondità di taglio entro limiti accettabili?
    Ovviamente dipende da molti fattori. Comunque, in generale, a parità di volume di truciolo, aumentare l'avanzamento con minori profondità di taglio è più favorevole rispetto alla combinazione opposta perchè generalmente assicura maggiori durate.
  • Come si possono trovare soluzioni più efficienti per una specifica applicazione?
    Se si conoscono i parametri, ITA (ISCAR Tool Advisor), è uno strumento molto efficiente. Il software è gratuito ed disponibile anche per dispositivi mobili. Nel caso in cui si necessitino di maggiori dettagli e informazioni, contattare direttamente ISCAR per assistenza.
  • What is turn-milling?
    Turn-milling is a process whereby a milling cutter machines a rotating workpiece. This method combines milling and turning techniques and has many advantages.
  • What are the advantages of turn-milling comparing with classical turning?
    • In turning, machining non-continuous surfaces features interrupted cutting that results in unwanted impact load, poor surface finish and early tool wear. In turn-milling, the tool is a milling cutter that is intended exactly for interrupted cuts with cyclic load.
    • When turning materials with long chips, chip disposal is difficult and identifying the correct chipbreaking geometry of a cutting tool is not simple. The milling cutter used in turn-milling generates a short chip that considerably improves swarf handling.
    • In turning eccentric areas of rotating components (crankshafts, camshafts, etc.), off-center masses of the components cause unbalanced forces that adversely affect performance. Turn-milling with its low rotary velocity of a workpiece significantly diminishes and even prevents this negative effect.
    • In turning, the rotation of heavy-weight parts, which defines the cutting speed, is limited by the characteristics of the main drive. If the drive does not allow rotation of large masses with required velocity, then the cutting speed will be far from the optimal range; and will resulut in low turning performance. Turn-milling provides a way to overcome the above difficulties effectively.
  • How I can calculate cutting data for turn-milling?
    The calculation method is shown in the March 2017 issue of “Welcome to ISCAR’s World”, a collection of articles. The electronic version of the issue can be found also on ISCAR’s site catalogs. If necessary, please contact our local representatives in your area – they will be glad to help with this issue.
  • What is the difference between radial chip thinning and axial chip thinning?
    Chip thinning refers to decreasing maximum chip thickness hmax compared to feed per tooth fz.
    Two factors cause this decrease:
    • Cutting geometry of a milling tool, specifically the tool cutting edge angle χr when it is less than 90° ("axial chip thinning"). Good examples of axial chip thinning are fast feed milling and machining 3-D surfaces at shallow depth of cut by ball nose or toroidal-shape milling tools.
    • Influence of width of cut ae. If ae in peripheral milling and face milling is smaller than the radius of the milling tool, hmax becomes lower than fz. This effect is known as “radial chip thinning”. Understanding chip thinning is very important. Maintaining necessary chip thickness requires appropriate increase of feed per tooth and is a key element for correctly programmed fz.
  • What is a slab mill?
    A slab mill is a type of a cylindrical (plain) milling cutter – a milling tool with helical cutting teeth on its cylindrical periphery. Slab mills generally feature large sizes and have a central bore for arbor mounting, mainly in horizontal milling machine tools. Slab mill length is considerably greater than its diameter. These mills are intended for machining an open surface (mostly plane) of a workpiece when the surface width is less than the mill length. Slab mills were very common in the past but today they are used quite rarely.
  • What is “roll-in entering” a machined workpiece in milling?
    Roll-in entering (or, simply, rolling in) is a method of approaching a material in milling. In rolling in, a milling cutter enters the material by arc that causes a gradual growth of mechanical and thermal load on a cutting edge. This approach cut significantly contributes to machining stability and improves tool life. Rolling in is contrary to the traditional straight entering, when the load suddenly increases.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of clamping inserts in milling cutters by wedge?
    The main advantages of clamping indexable inserts in a milling cutter by wedge are quick and easy insert replacement or changing a worn cutting edge of the insert (the insert indexing). Clamping by wedge is more common for indexable face mills, especially large-sized. These mills usually work in tough conditions and often become hot. Machine operators prefer the wedge clamping design for such mills.
    However, the wedge, an additional part above the insert in the cutter structure, produces an obstacle for chip flow in the cutter chip gullet, which worsens chip evacuation and reduces cutter performance. This is a major disadvantage of wedge clamping. Intensive contact between the chips and the wedge results in the detrition wear of the latter and shortens its tool life.
  • How to estimate tool life for ceramic cutting tools?
    Ceramic tools behave differently than carbide tools. In most cases, the end of a tool life is determined by the acceptable level of burrs and not by wear size.
  • What is a router?
    In machining, the term "router" has several meanings. It may refer to a rotating tool for hollowing out ("routing") wood and plastic materials. "Router" refers also to a 3-axis CNC machine for cutting soft materials, such as wood, using a rotating tool. In metalworking, a "router" usually means an endmill, intended for milling aluminum at high cutting and feed speeds.
  • Flute or chip gullet?
    In milling cutter terminology, both words designate a chip space or a chip pocket – the shaped area of a milling cutter body that is intended for the flow of chips that are formed as a result of cutting. This space must be sufficient to enable a free, unrestricted chip flow. The term "chip gullet" is generally used to specify the chip space of indexable milling cutters, whereas "flute" is mainly applied to a solid mill design, where it means a helical groove that ensures chip flow and produces a sharp cutting edge or a mill tooth by one of its edges.
  • Chip breaker or chip former?
    A chip breaker is an area of a tool rake face that is specially shaped for breaking or controlling (forming) the produced chip. The term "chip breaker" is commonly used in turning operations, where breaking a long chip is one of the key success factors. In milling, the term "chip former" is generally used, as milling is an interrupted, "chip breaking" cutting process that focuses on chip forming.
  • What is "chip load"?
    The term "chip load" is a synonym for the term "feed per tooth". This term is more common for the North American market. In North American countries the term "feed rate" is often used instead of the ISO definition "feed speed". While on this subject, manufacturers can refer to "feed speed" as "table feed". The original term refers to a classical milling machine, from previous generations, where feed motion was created by movements of the machine table.
  • What is the difference between "wiper flat" and "wiper insert"?
    A wiper flat is a small minor edge on a regular indexable insert in milling cutters to improve the quality of a machined surface. It is often referred to as a “wiper.”
    A wiper insert is a specially designed insert were the wiper flat is significantly larger than for a standard insert. When mounted in a milling cutter, the wiper insert protrudes 0.05…0.07 mm axially relative to a regular inserts. A wiper insert "smooths down" the machined surface, noticeably improving surface finish.
  • What is "stepover" and what is "stepdown"?
    In multi-pass milling, "stepover" and "stepdown" refer to the distance between two adjacent passes. "Stepover" relates to this distance when, after finishing a pass, the milling cutter moves sideward and then performs the next pass. By contrast, if at the end of a pass the milling cutter moves downward to start the next part, the distance is called "stepdown". Sometimes "stepover" and "stepdown" are referred to as "sidestep" and "downstep" correspondingly although this is less common.
  • What is the difference between "gang milling" and "straddle milling"?
    Straddle milling is a type of gang milling.
    In gang milling, an assembled tool comprising two or more milling cutters mounted in the same arbor, machines several workpiece surfaces simultaneously. In straddle milling, two or more side-and-face milling cutters, mounted in one arbor, machine parallel planes of a workpiece. The planes are perpendicular to the arbor axis and feature an exact distance (distances) between them. To ensure the necessary accuracy of the distance (distances), the milling cutters are spaced apart with the use of bushings and spacers.
  • What is the difference between profile milling, milling contoured surfaces and form milling?
    Generally, these definitions mean the same thing and relate to milling 3-D surfaces. Such kind of machining is often named in shop talk as simply profiling.
  • Which industrial sectors are characterized by a great number of profile milling operations?
    First, it is the Die and Mold industry, then Aerospace but almost every branch requires profile milling tools in a varying degree, too.
  • Which types of tools are the most popular for profile milling?
    In rough milling for “pre-shaping” further 3-D surfaces, process planners use different tools and even general-duty 90° milling cutters. Fast Feed milling cutters* are very efficient means for high-efficiency roughing. However, most of profile milling operations relate to toroidal and ball nose milling cutters because they ensure correct generation of a needed shape in every direction.

    * refer to the appropriate section in FAQ session
  • Are inserts with chip splitting action in ISCAR’s profile milling products?
    Yes. Moreover, exactly from MILLSHRED, a family of indexable milling cutters with round inserts, the serrated cutting edge of ISCAR milling inserts was started its way.
  • What is the effective cutting diameter of a profile milling tool?
    In profile milling, due to the shaped, non-straight form of the tool, a cutting diameter is a function of a depth of cut; and it is not the same for different areas of the tool cutting edge that is involved in milling. The effective diameter is the largest true cutting diameter: maximum of the cutting diameters of these areas. In calculating cutting data, it is very important to consider the effective diameter, because the real cutting speed relates to the effective diameter, while the spindle speed refers to the nominal diameter of a tool.
  • Which types of profile milling tools ISCAR provides?
    ISCAR line of profile milling tools comprises Fast Feed*, toroidal, and ball nose cutters in the following design configurations:
    • tools with indexable inserts
    • solid carbide endmills
    • replaceable milling heads with MULTI-MASTER* adaptation

    * refer to the appropriate section in FAQ session
  • What is restmilling?
    Productive milling proposes applying more durable and rigid tools for high metal removal rate. In many cases the form and the dimensions of the tools do not allow for a cut in some area; for example, the corners of a die cavity. The remainder of the material in the areas is removed by restmilling – a method under a technological process where a tool of smaller diameter cuts the areas with residual stock.
  • Does ISCAR recommend the use of “plungers” for profile milling?
    Yes, in cases of large overhang we recommend the use of cutters/plungers on the Z axis, as this will result in a more productive milling operation with less vibration in profiling/roughing. The depth of cut for plungers with overhang is higher than ap for conventional systems, obtaining a higher metal removal rate. ISCAR offers a variety of plungers and, to achieve important lengths, we recommend use of the ITS modular system.
  • What is ISCAR's "rule of 12" for ball nose cutters?
    "The rule of 12" is a rule of thumb that may be useful for quick estimation of the relation between a depth of cut and a width of cut (a stepover) when milling ISO P materials (soft and pre-hardened steel, ferritic and martensitic stainless steel) by ball nose cutters. In accordance with the rule, if a depth of cut is the half of a cutter diameter (D/2), a recommended width of cut (a stepover) should be no more than D/6; for the depth of cut D/3 the maximal width of cut should be D/4 etc.
    It is not difficult to see that 2×6=3×4=12.
    Frese a Candela Integrali
  • Does ISCAR provide solid carbide endmills for machining all groups of engineering materials?
    ISCAR’s SOLIDMILL line consists of various families of solid carbide endmills that are intended for machining different materials: steel, stainless steel, cast iron, etc. The line offers a rich variety of tools covering all application groups under ISO classifications P, M, K, N, S and H.
  • Which types of solid carbide endmills does ISCAR offer as standard products?
    ISCAR’s standard solid carbide endmill products include 90° endmills, ball nose cutters, and tools for high feed (fast feed) milling, chamfering, and deburring. ISCAR also offers families of endmills designed specifically for high speed machining that apply trochoidal milling techniques.
  • What are the advantages of the trochoidal milling method?
    Usually, trochoidal milling is applied to machining slots and pockets. In trochoidal milling, a fast-rotating tool moves along an arc and “slices” a thin but wide layer of material. When the layer is removed, the cutter advances deeper into the material radially and then repeats the slicing. This method ensures uniform tool engagement and stable average chip thickness. The tool experiences constant load, causing uniform wear and predictable tool life. The small thickness of sliced material significantly reduces heat impact on the tool and ensures an increase in the number of tool teeth. This method results in a very high metal removal rate with considerably decreased power consumption and improved tool life.
  • What is a "trochoid"?
    "Trochoid", or "trochoidal curve", is a general name for a curve described by a fixed point on a circle as it rolls along a straight line or curves without slipping.
  • What is the secret of CHATTERFREE geometry?
    CHATTERFREE represents a design utilized in several ISCAR solid carbide endmill families. The main CHATTERFREE features are unequal angular pitch of cutter teeth and variable helix angle. This concept results in substantially reducing or even eliminating vibrations during cutting, which significantly improves performance and tool life.
  • What is a variable helix?
    The term "variable helix" refers to the helix angle in vibration-free designs of solid carbide endmills (SCEM), as are found in ISCAR CHATTERFREE products. A typical SCEM features helical teeth and the helix angle determines the cutting edge inclination of a tooth. In traditionally designed endmills, the helix angle is the same for all flutes, but it varies in vibration-free configurations.
    The term “variable helix” is commonly understood to represent two design features: 1) Combining flutes with unequal helix angles where the angles are constant along every flute.
    2) Helix angle varies along the flute.
    However, the term “variable helix” is correct only in relation to design feature 1 and the term “different helix” should be used to specify design feature 2.
  • Why are FINISHRED endmills often referred to as “Two in One”?
    FINISHRED endmills feature four flutes, two serrated teeth and two continuous teeth. This facilitates the integration of two cutting geometries into a single tool: rough (serrated teeth with chip splitting action) and finish (continuous teeth), so gaining the “two in one” appellation. By running at rough machining parameters, semi-finish or even finish surface quality can be achieved. One such tool can replace two rough and finish endmills, reducing cutting time and power consumption while increasing productivity.
  • Does ISCAR provide instructions for regrinding solid carbide endmills?
    Yes. All catalogues, as well as relevant technical leaflets and brochures, contain instructions for regrinding solid carbide endmills, and ISCAR local representatives are available to advise on this issue.
  • What is a length series?
    Solid carbide endmills of the same type and the same diameter often vary in overall length within a family. According to the length gradation, there are short, medium and long series. Additional series such as extra-short or extra-long can also be applied. As a general rule, short-length endmills ensure highest strength and rigidity whereas extra-long solid carbide endmills are intended for long-reach applications.
  • What is a slot drill?
    “Slot drill” is a name of an endmill that can cut straight down. Slot drills have at least one center cutting tooth and are used mainly to form key slots. Slot drills are typically two-flute mills, but they can have three and even four flutes.
  • ISCAR ball nose solid carbide endmills have two or four flutes (teeth). How should the correct number of flutes for a ball nose endmill be chosen?
    The all-purpose four flute ball nose solid carbide endmills provide a universal and robust production solution for various applications, especially for semi-finish and finish operations. Two flute endmills have a larger chip gullet, which makes them more suitable for rough machining as they ensure better chip evacuation. Two flute tools are also considered to be a workable method for fine finishing due to a lower accumulated error, which depends on the number of teeth. When milling with shallow depth of cut, calculating feed per tooth should take into consideration only 2 effective teeth; as the advantages of a multi-flute design are diminished.
  • Does the ISCAR solid carbide endmill line include miniature endmills?
    ISCAR solid carbide endmill lines include endmills with diameters of tenths of mm. For example, the standard ball nose endmills, which are intended for processing ribs for hard materials, start from a minimal diameter of 0.1 mm.
  • Does ISCAR produce solid ceramic endmills? Where is their application most effective?
    ISCAR's product range includes a family of solid ceramic endmills. They are mainly applied to machining high temperature superalloys, heat resistant stainless steel, cast iron and graphite.
  • What are the applications for ISCAR's lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads? (Related to MULTI-MASTER - 466)
    The lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads are designed for 5-axis semi-finish and finish milling complex surfaces, especially in aerospace, medical and die & mold industries.
  • Is it possible to regrind ISCAR's lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills?
    The lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills features a complicated cutting shape and therefore they are not intended for regrinding.
  • Come è montata la testina sullo stelo?
    La testina ha due superfici: un cono corto una superficie posteriore non tagliente che determina il posizionamento sullo stelo. Il cono assicura elevata concentricità e la superficie posteriore il contatto frontale. Quindi la parte posteriore della testina è composta da due parti fondamentali: conica e filettata. Per il montaggio, la testine viene inizialmente posizionata a mano e serrata con la chiave.
  • Quali sono i vantaggi del contatto frontale?
    Prima di tutto, il contatto frontale incrementa rigidità e stabilità dell'assemblaggio per resistere ai carichi molto comuni in fresatura. Questo assicura un taglio stabile, minimizza le vibrazioni e riduce la potenza assorbita. Inoltre il contatto frontale assicura elevata ripetibilità della sporgenza della testina rispetto allo stelo. Per questo, non sono necessari tempi di setup dopo la sostituzione della testina, che può essere montata con lo stelo in macchina.
  • A cosa si riferisce il "gap iniziale"?
    La prima fase del serraggio viene effettuata a mano. Quando la testina si ferma, rimane un piccolo spazio (gap) tra i piani dello stelo e della testina. Da questo momento è possibile serrare la testina solo utilizzando la chiave. Il serraggio della testina causa una deformazione elastica nell'area di contatto dello stelo in direzione radiale. I gap di cui sopra viene definito "iniziale" ed è un fattore molto importante del sistema MULTI-MASTER. Il valore è nell'ordine di decimi di millimetro, in base alla dimensione del filetto.
  • Perché il filetto MULTI-MASTER ha un profilo speciale?
    Le testine MULTI-MASTER sono realizzate in carburo di tungsteno. Nonostante sia un materiale estremamente duro e resistente al calore, ha minori forze d'impatto rispetto, per esempio, all'acciaio super-rapido(HSS). Quindi, progettando un particolare filettato in carburo di tungsteno, minimizzare gli stress è uno dei principali problemi da risolvere.
    Inoltre, la connessione filettata MULTI-MASTER ha dimensioni relativamente ridotte: i diametri nominali dei filetti variano entro 4-15 mm. Queste misure e la necessità di sopportare i carichi di lavoro, possono limitare l'altezza del profilo del filetto. Quanto descritto rendono problematico l'utilizzo di filetti standard e richiedono quindi un design specifico del filetto che soddisfi le specifiche di connessione. Questi sono i motivi che hanno spinto ISCAR a progettare un filetto specifico per la linea MULTI-MASTER.
  • Quali tipologie di testine MULTI-MASTER offre ISCAR?
    • Testine con varie forme - 90°, 45°, 60° ecc
    • Testine per profilatura ball nose, toroidali, con raggi concavi ecc
    • Testine per incavatura e scanalatura per anelli di tenuta, OR, cave a T ecc
    • Testine per filettatura
    • Testina per centrinatura
    • Testine per incisioni
    Le testine hanno un numero differente di denti (eliche), angoli d'elica e gradi di precisione, così come geometrie di taglio per lavorazioni efficienti di un'ampia gamma di materiali
  • What is an economy-type end milling head?
    There are two types of MULTI-MASTER end milling heads.
    The first type of MULTI-MASTER end milling head is the same as the ISCAR standard solid carbide endmills but differs in overall and cutting edge lengths. A major advantage of this type of end milling heads is that there is a large variety to choose from (practically all the standard line of the solid mills). In finishing and milling hard materials, increasing the number of flutes makes cutting more stable and productive. The heads of the first type are produced from stepped cylindrical blanks by grinding.
    The second type of MULTI-MASTER end milling heads is the economy version; it is shaped beforehand by pressing and sintering with a small oversize. Further grinding defines the final shape of a head and its accuracy. The heads of this type have a high-strength tooth that makes it possible to substantially increase the feed per tooth in comparison with the heads of the first type. Pressing technology enables production of different complicated shapes; although making these from the stepped blanks is problematic. The economy-type heads have only two teeth.
  • Why do the MULTI-MASTER keys have two openings?
    Due to the design features of the heads, one of the openings, similar to openings of ordinary engineering wrenches, is intended for the multi-flute heads of the first type of MULTI-MASTER end milling head (see above) and the appropriate cylindrical blanks. The second shaped opening is designed for the economy-type heads.
  • La famiglia MULTI-MASTER ha anche soluzioni per foratura?
    Sì. La famiglia MULTI-MASTER offre testine a 45°, 30° e 60° progettate non solo per smussi, ma anche per fori pilota e lamature. Inoltre, sono disponibili testine per centrinatura.
  • Is a center drilling head that is made from solid carbide, really a reasonable solution? There are various low-cost double-sided standard combined center drills and countersinks produced from HSS.
    When compared to the above-mentioned HSS combined drills and countersinks, the center drilling heads allow for a considerable increase in tool life. The heads are operated under higher cutting data and thus lead to higher productivity. Therefore, we advise checking the current production cost and then making a decision, taking all relevant factors into account.
  • What is the accuracy of the heads?
    The nominal diameter of the normal accuracy end milling heads has the following tolerance limits: e8 for multi-flute heads produced from blanks and h9 for the economy- type heads. The precise heads for finish profiling are made with tolerance limits for diameter h7 and the heads for milling aluminum – h6. The diametric tolerance for the cylindrical cutting area of the heads for chamfering, spot drilling and countersinking is h10.
  • What is the repeatability tolerance of MULTI-MASTER heads?
    As mentioned in the answer to question 2, one of the main advantages of the face contact is high repeatability, which ensures closed tolerance for the head overhang with respect to the contact face of a shank. The overhang limits are ±0.01 mm for the majority of the end milling heads. 
  • Does ISCAR offer MULTI-MASTER heads intended for milling hardened steel? 
    Yes. These heads are made from a high-strength and wear-resistant submicron carbide grade; and they have tight dimensional tolerances.
  • What are the main types of shanks and for which purpose should they be used?
    The shanks are available in different versions: smooth cylindrical and with a neck. The neck can be straight or conical.
    The smooth shanks and the shanks with a straight neck, called Type A shanks in MULTI-MASTER’s designation system, are general purpose shanks and are used for a variety of applications. There is also a reinforced version, intended mainly for milling keyways or high-feed milling (HFM). It is distinguished by flats on a shank body that make it suitable for clamping in Weldon-type adapters.
    Type B is a reinforced shank with a relatively short conical neck which has a taper angle of 5° on the side. It is characterized by increased strength of the durable body that defines its main application: heavy-duty machining.
    For long-reach machining at high overhang, the Type D shank with a long conical neck can offer a good solution. It has a taper angle of 1° on the side and is designed primarily for milling deep pockets and cavities, high steep walls, etc. This shank should not be used in heavy-load conditions.
    For short-reach applications, the MULTI-MASTER family offers shanks with a collet adaptation. These are mounted directly into a collet chuck instead of the spring collet. The direct mounting increases rigidity and accuracy, and reduces the overall overhang relative to the datum face of a machine tool spindle.
    The MULTI-MASTER family also includes smooth steel cylindrical shanks of considerable overall length (at least 10 diameters of the shank). These are intended primarily for producing specially tailored tools of various configurations by additional machining of the shanks in order to form the required shape. Such machining can be performed even directly by the customer. In fact, they are the blanks with an internal T-thread. For the convenience of additional machining operations (turning, sometimes external grinding, etc.), the shanks are provided with a center hole in the rear face.
    The MULTI-MASTER family contains a variety of extensions and reducers for connecting with other ISCAR systems of modular tooling (for example, FLEXFIT)
  • From what materials are the shanks made? How should the correct material be chosen?
    The shanks are produced from the following materials: steel, tungsten carbide and heavy metal (an alloy containing 90% and more of tungsten).
    In the context of functionality, a steel shank is the most versatile. Due to the considerable stiffness of tungsten carbide, a carbide shank is intended primarily for finishing and semi-finishing, machining at high overhang and milling internal circumferential grooves. In case of unstable cutting, applying a heavy metal shank can give good results because of the vibration-proof properties of heavy metal. However, heavy metal shanks are not recommended for heavy-duty machining.
  • Are the MULTI-MASTER tools suitable for coolant supply directly through the tool body?
    Yes, there is a design of the shanks with holes for internal coolant supply.
  • Can the MULTI-MASTER shanks be held in heat shrink chucks and collets?
    The carbide or heavy metal shanks (see the answer to question 14) are suitable for toolholding by the heat shrink method. As for the steel shanks, clamping them into heat shrink chucks and collets is not recommended.
  • Is it necessary to lubricate T-threads when mounting the heads into a shank?
    No. Do not apply lubricants to the MULTI-MASTER T-thread connection!
  • Are the MULTI-MASTER connection design and thread compatible with other tool brands?
    No. ISCAR’s unique design is patented and other systems that appeared later are not compatible.
  • Does ISCAR provide blank MULTI-MASTER heads that are intended for final forming by the customer?
    The MULTI-MASTER family includes semi-finished uncoated carbide blank heads, designed for manufacturing various special cutting profiles by additional grinding at customer facilities. The blank heads have a T-thread for MULTI-MASTER adaptation and a cylindrical portion intended for grinding by the customer.
  • Does ISCAR provide a key with adjustable tightening torque for MULTI-MASTER heads?
    Yes. The MULTI-MASTER product range includes an assembled key, comprising an adjustable torque handle with a set of interchangeable wrenches and TORX-tipped bits, designed for secure and accurate tightening of MULTI-MASTER heads. This key is an optional product and should be ordered separately.
  • What are the applications for ISCAR's lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads? (Related to Solid Endmills - 465)
    The lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads are designed for 5-axis semi-finish and finish milling complex surfaces, especially in aerospace, medical and die & mold industries.
    Elevati Avanzamenti
  • Che tipologie di frese per elevati avanzamenti produce ISCAR?
    La linea di frese per elevati avanzamenti ISCAR comprende frese indexabili, Multi-Master e frese integrali in metallo duro.
  • Quale operazioni di fresatura è la più indicata per lavorazioni con elevati avanzamenti?
    Le operazioni più indicate per lavorazioni con elevati avanzamenti sono la sgrossatura in spianatura, creazione di tasche e cavità.
  • Qual è il significato di "FFF" che si trova spesso nelle presentazioni tecniche ISCAR?
    "FFF" fa riferimento alla spianatura con elevati avanzamenti.
  • di acciai e ghise. Questa tecnica può essere utilizzata anche per materiali difficoltosi come titanio o superleghe?
    Le frese per elevati avanzamenti possono essere utilizzate anche per materiali difficoltosi.
    La geometria di taglio in questi casi è differente rispetto alle geometria progettata per acciai e ghise. Inoltre, l'avanzamento al dente sarà inferiore rispetto alle lavorazioni di acciai e ghise; in qualsiasi caso sarà decisamente superiore rispetto ai parametri consigliati per il metodo tradizionale
  • Cosa sono le frese MF?
    MF sta per "Avanzamenti Moderati": moderati rispetto ad "Elevati", ma sicuramente maggiori rispetto alla fresatura tradizionale. Il metodo MF è pensato per maggior produttività su macchine con poca potenza, fresatura di pezzi pesanti ecc
  • The LOGIQ campaign introduced new families of indexable FF milling cutters with a diameter range typically covered by solid carbide endmills. Can these new cutters successfully compete with the solid carbide design concept?
    Yes. The design of the cutters ensures a multi-teeth tool configuration. Let’s consider the NAN3FEED mill family as an example. They have 2 and 3 teeth for nominal diameters 8 and 10 mm (.315 and .394”) correspondingly. In a cutter carrying replaceable inserts, only the insert - a small part of the cutter - is made from cemented carbide. This means that the indexable design consumes far less of this expensive material than a solid carbide solution. The NAN3FEED insert with its 3 cutting edges ensures triple edge indexing, which is also cost-effectiveness. As the insert is small, it is placed simply in a pocket via a key with a magnetic boss on the key handle. The economical efficiency and ease of use make the family competitive with solid carbide tools.
  • Are fast feed cutters recommended for milling operations in turning or multi-task machines?
    Yes. In general, these are small to medium diameter cutters and the turning operation is fast. The use of fast feed cutters results in improving the milling operation, reducing the machining time and minimizing damages to the machine head. MULTI-MASTER is an excellent option for turn-milling machines.
    High Speed Machining (HSM)
  • What does the term "high speed machining" mean?
    Often HSM is emphasized as "a high-efficiency method of modern machining with high spindle and feed speed". High speed machining may refer to:
    • High cutting speed machining
    • High spindle speed machining
    • High feed speed machining
    These three speeds are interrelated. Increasing spindle speed automatically results in increasing feed speed as well, and likewise higher cutting speed requires a correspondingly higher spindle speed. As cutting speed varies in direct proportion to the diameter of a rotating tool, for tools of different diameters, different spindle speeds are required to ensure that the cutting speed is identical. A cutting speed is also a function of several factors, where a workpiece material and a cutting tool material are dominant. Depending on the cutting tool material, the recommended cutting speed for the same workpiece material may be quite different. A good example of this is machining nickel-base high temperature alloys by cemented carbide and whisker ceramic tools. At the same time, in machining aluminum, for instance, "normal" cutting speeds are significantly higher than in machining the high-temperature alloys.
    The term "high speed machining" usually relates to high speed milling, which is a milling method that is characterized by shallow, light cuts combined with high spindle speed.
  • Is the cutting speed extremely high in high speed machining?
    Not always. Let's examine one example. Assume that we machine a material with the use of a ball nose milling cutter of 4 mm in diameter while the depth of cut is 0.1 mm. The effective diameter in this case will be 1.25 mm. If the cutting speed as 60 m/min is required, the cutter should rotate at 15280 rpm. If the cutting speed will be 100 m/min, the rotational speed of the cutter will increase up to 25465 rpm! High speed machining does not automatically mean that the cutting speed is high.
  • Is it correct that a machine tool intended for high speed machining must have a high speed main drive?
    Yes, but not only. As rotational speeds and feed speeds are interrelated, the machine tool should also feature a high speed feed drive. Furthermore, the machine tool must have appropriate fast control systems, high rigidity and many other design features, to make it suitable for high speed machining.
  • Can high speed machining be applied to machining hard steel?
    Yes. In machining hard steel – which are difficult-to-cut materials – intensive heat generation and vibration take place. This is a source of poor tool life, reduction of accuracy, loss of stability etc. that makes machining operations unpredictable. High speed machining with its shallow cuts produces much lower cutting forces and heat, and therefore can solve these issues.
  • Why is high speed machining becoming more and more popular in rough machining operations?
    Technological advances, especially in producing workpieces that are half-finished products, place special emphasis on high speed machining. Methods such as precise casting, metal injection molding, and 3D printing ensure that the production of workpieces is very close to the final shape of a part. As a result, the need to remove a high volume of materials by means of traditional rough cutting decreases. As high speed machining features low stock removal, it offers a precise method of producing workpieces.
  • How does trochoidal milling relate to high speed machining?
    In trochoidal milling, a fast-rotating tool moves along an arc and “slices” a thin but wide layer of material. This milling method features small widths (or radial depths) of cut and high speed rotation of the tool and may be considered as a high speed machining technique.
  • Does ISCAR provide information about maximum rotational velocities for milling cutters?
    Yes. This information can be found in catalogues, guides, leaflets and other technical documentations. In many cases, the maximum rotational velocity permitted for indexable milling cutters is marked directly on a cutter body.
    Incavatura e Scanalatura
  • Quali frese vengono utilizzate per lavorazioni incavatura?
    In generale si possono utilizzare molte tipologie di frese per incavature e scanalatura. Comunque sole le frese con taglienti frontali e periferici sono progettate appositamente per incavatura e scanalatura. ISCAR propone una linea di frese dedicata per incavatura e scanalatura.
  • Qual è la differenza tra incavatura e scanalatura?
    Molto spesso sono sinonimi. Incavatura fa riferimento ad un'apertura stretta, relativamente lunga, principalmente longitudinale; scanalatura fa riferimento ad un canale circolare (chiamato "sottosquadro") o elicoidale.
  • Slot milling tools are often referenced as slotting tools. Is this correct?
    The word “slotting”, commonly known as “slot milling”, is widespread in shop talk but the two actions are not identical or interchangeable. Slotting refers specifically to a stage in planning or shaping – a machining process where a single-point cutting tool moves linearly and piston wise, and a workpiece is fixed or moves only linearly concurrent with the tool.
  • Perchè le frese per incavatura vengono definite anche frese frontali e laterali?
    Le frese per incavatura hanno taglienti frontali e laterali per la lavorazione simultanea del fondo e delle pareti della cava.
  • Quali sono le principali tipologie di frese per incavatura?
    Queste frese hanno diverse tipologie di attacco. Possono essere con o senza flangia o, in alternativa, possono essere testine intercambiabili per frese modulari.
  • Qual è il programma ISCAR per incavatura?
    ISCAR ha sviluppato frese per incavatura in varie tipoogie:
    - Frese indexabili
    - Frese assemblate Multi-Master con teste intercambiabili
    - Frese assemblabili T-SLOT con testine intercambiabili in metallo duro
  • Quali cave vengono definite strette?
    Una regola empirica definisce "stretta" una cava con spessore massimo di 5 mm e profondità di almeno 2.5 volte lo spessore.
  • What type of milling does ISCAR recommend for these types of cutters?
    Down milling is normally recommended, where chip thickness is formed from thick to thin.
  • What is the difference between indexable slotting cutters and slitting cutters?
    Originally, slotting cutters were intended for milling slots and grooves while slitting cutters were used for slitting or cutting-off. Each type of cutters featured different accuracy requirements, and slitting cutters were less precise. However, technological progress has significantly leveled out differences between slotting and slitting cutters in indexable milling.
    Frese ad Elica Estesa
  • Perchè frese "ad elica estesa"??
    La parte tagliente di una fresa ad elica estesa è composta da una composizione di inserti posizionati gradualmente. Rispetto ad una fresa "normale" la cui lunghezza di taglio è limitata dal tagliente dell'inserto, la lunghezza di taglio delle frese ad elica estesa è decisamente maggiore - è estesa dalla composizione di inserti.
  • Quali sono gli altri termini tecnici per le frese ad elica estesa?
    Le frese ad elica estesa vengono definite anche frese a tagliente lungo e frese a riccio.
  • Quali sono le principali applicazioni delle frese ad elica estesa?
    Le frese ad elica estesa sono progettate per sgrossature con elevate performance: spallamenti elevati, cavità profonde ecc
  • Le frese ad elica estesa possono essere utilizzate in operazioni di semi-finitura?
    Sì. Ci sono soluzioni che assicurano questo tipo di lavorazione. Per esempio, le frese ISCAR HELITANG FIN LNK montano inserti tangenziali rettificati sul perimetro progettati appositamente per semi-finitura.
  • Perchè per molti tipi di frese ad elica estesa sono disponibili inserti chip splitting?
    Le frese ad elica estesa lavorano con carichi molto elevati. La geometria chip splitting è molto spesso integrata per migliorare sensibilmente le performance di lavorazione.
    • La geometria chip splitting assicura un truciolo molto piccolo, di semplice evacuazione che ne assicura un'ottima gestione.
    • Inoltre la geometria chip splitting assicura una decisa diminuzione delle vibrazioni generate.
    • In molti casi riduce anche le forze di taglio e la potenza assorbita, portando a minor calore generato.
    • Il truciolo di piccole dimensioni inoltre tende a non essere rilavorato, assicurando lavorazioni più produttive e maggiori durate.
  • Quali sono le configurazioni delle frese ad elica estesa ISCAR?
    La linea standard ISCAR di frese ad elica estesa comprende varie configurazioni:
    • Frese a manicotto
    • Frese con stelo cilindrico (liscio o con piani, conosciuto come Tipo Weldon)
    • Frese con attacco conico (7:24, HSK)
    • Attacco poligonale conico con teste intercambiabili con connessione FLEXFIT
  • Le frese ad elica estesa ISCAR sono dotate di refrigerazione interna?
    La maggior parte delle frese ad elica estesa ISCAR sono dotate di refrigerazione interna.
  • ISCAR consiglia di utilizzare frese ad elica estesa per lavorazioni di titanio?
    Sì. Le lavorazioni di titanio solitamente sono caratterizzate da elevati volumi di truciolo. Le frese ad elica estesa assicurano elevati volumi con ottime performance, portando una sensibile riduzione dei tempi ciclo.
  • Why are some extended flute cutters defined as ‘fully effective’?
    The design of the cutters known as ‘fully effective’ features the inserts interlinked and overlapping, resulting in a continuous flute. Many other cutters are “half effective”, where the inserts are placed alternately and 2 flutes are necessary to cover the area that the fully effective cutters can cover with only one flute.
    Fresatura di Ingranaggi
  • Does ISCAR provide tools for milling gears and splines?
    ISCAR’s current tool program, for milling spur gears with straight teeth and splines, has been developed to include three types of cutter:
    • cutters with indexable inserts
    • cutters with replaceable cutting heads based on the T-SLOT concept
    • cutters with replaceable MULTI-MASTER cutting heads
  • For which method of generating teeth are ISCAR’s milling tools intended?
    Form milling and power skiving.
  • When talking about generating a tooth profile, what is meant by “form milling”?
    Form milling is one of the methods for generating tooth profiles. In form milling, a milling cutter with a working shape like the contour of a tooth space, machines every tooth individually; and a workpiece is indexed through a pitch after generating one space.
  • Are there other methods of generating tooth profiles, apart from form milling?
    The principal methods (in addition to form milling) include gear hobbing, which uses a hob, a cutter with a set of teeth along a helix that mills the workpiece and that rotates together with the workpiece in a similar way to a worm-wheel drive; gear shaping with the use of a gear-shaping cutter, a rotating tool that visually resembles a mill; and by power skiving - a technique that combines gear milling and gear shaping. There are also other methods of generating teeth profiles, such as gear broaching, gear grinding, and gear rolling.
  • Is milling gear teeth the final operation of a gear-making process?
    In general, milling gear teeth is not the final operation in the gear-making process. After this operation, it is necessary to remove burrs and then the sharp edges of the teeth should be rounded or chamfered, for better engagement. Gear rounding, and gear chamfering operations are necessary to avoid quenching gears with sharp edges, which may cause various micro cracks that affect gear life. In addition, milling teeth ensures parameters that feature only gears of relatively low accuracy. As manufacturing precise gears demands tougher characteristics of accuracy and surface finish, other processes such as gear shaving, gear grinding, gear honing, etc., are also applied.
  • Usually, form gear milling relates mainly to individual and low-batch production. Why do manufacturers of general-purpose cutting tools, including ISCAR, include form gear milling cutters in their program for standard lines?
    With batch manufacturing, milling gear teeth is made on specific gear hobbing machines as gear hobbing productivity is substantially higher. However, advanced multifunctional machine tools increasingly widen the range of machining operations that can be performed. Technological processes developed for these machines are oriented to maximize machining operation for one-setup manufacturing, creating a new source for more accurate and productive manufacturing. Milling gears and splines is one of the operations suitable for performing on the new machines.
    These new machines require appropriate tooling and manufacturers of general-purpose cutting tools are reconsidering the role of gear-milling cutters in their programs for standard product lines.
  • What is the module in gearing?
    The module (modulus) is one of the main basic parameters of a gear in metric system. It is measured in mm. The module m of a gear with pitch diameter d and number of teeth z is the ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth (d/z).
  • Does the inch (Imperial) system of gearing also use the module as a basic parameter in gearing?
    The inch (Imperial) system operates another basic parameter: the diametral pitch. This is the number of gear teeth per one inch of the pitch diameter. If a gear has N teeth and it features pitch diameter D (in inches), diametral pitch P is calculated as N/D. Sometimes, when specifying gears in inch units, the so-called English module is used. In principle, this module has the same meaning as the module in the metric system, e.g. the ratio of the pitch diameter and the number of teeth; however, the pitch diameter should be taken in inches and not in millimeters like in the metric system.
  • What is the difference between gear and splines?
    Gears in a gear train are intended for transmitting rotational movement between 2 shafts (while the axes of the shafts are not always parallel) and, in most cases, this transmission is combined with changing torque and rotational speed. The gears are used also for transforming rotational movement into linear movement. A splined joint is a demounted connection of two parts to transfer the torque from one to another. The torque is not changed here.
  • What is the difference between splines and serrations?
    Within this context, serrations represent a type of spline. The serrations feature V-shaped space between teeth. They are commonly used in small-size connections.
  • Qual è la prima scelta per Scanalature Gravose?
    • Per lavorazioni di scanaltura, utilizzare gli inserti DOVEIQGRIP TIGER con larghezze di 10 - 20 mm
    • Per lavorazioni di torni-scanalatura, utilizzare gli inserti SUMO-GRIP TAGB con larghezze 6 - 14 mm
  • Qual è la miglior geometria per lavorazioni di materiali duttili e gommosi?
    Utilizzare le geometria "N" . Disponibile con larghezze 3 - 8 mm per inserti esterni GIMN e larghezze 2 -5 mm per inserti interni GEMI/GINI.
  • Quali sono i gradi consigliati per materiali ISO-M / ISO-P?
    • La prima scelta per molte applicazioni è il grado IC808.
    • Se si necessita di un grado più duro con maggior resistenza all'usura utilizzare il grado IC807.
    • Se si necessita di un grado più tenace con maggior resistenza agli impatti (tagli interrotti) utilizzare il grado IC830.
  • Qual è il miglior grado per lavorazioni di materiali ISO-S (superleghe)?
    • La prima scelta è il grado IC806.
    • Per materiali ISO-S più duri (HRC>35) utilizzare il grado IC804.
  • Quali utensili di scanalatura vanno utilizzati su macchine automatiche?
    Utilizzare gli esclusivi utensili con serraggio laterale GEHSR/GHSR, con possibilità di serraggio frontale e posteriore per un accesso molto più semplice su macchine automatiche (rispetto al convenzionale fissaggio superiore).
  • Quali sono i gradi/geometrie consigliate per scanalatura e torni-scanalatura di ghise?
    Utilizzare gli inserti TGMA/GIA con geometria Ke gradi IC5010 o IC428
  • Quali sono i gradi/geometrie consigliate per scanalatura e torni-scanalatura di alluminio?
    Utilizzare gli inserti GIPA/GIDA/FSPA con tagliente positivo, molto affilato e spoglia superiore lappata nei gradi IC20 o PCD ID5. Per larghezze di 6 - 8 mm, gli inserti tondi FSPA sono la prima scelta grazie al sistema di serraggio superiore.
  • Quali soluzioni utilizzare per scanalature interne di fori con diametro ridotto?
    • Diametri del foro da 2 a 10 mm: utilizzare inserti PICCO su utensili PICCO ACE.
    • Diametri del foro da 8 a 20 mm: utilizzare inserti GIQR su utensili MGCH.
    • Diametri del foro da 12 a 25 mm: utilizzare inserti GEMI/GEPI su utensili GEHIR.
  • Come si possono ridurre le vibrazioni?
    • Lavorare con la minima sporgenza possibile;
    • Lavorare con giri/min costanti;
    • Ridurre i giri/min se necessario;
    • Ridurre la larghezza dell'inserto per diminuire le forze di taglio;
    • Per larghezze da 6 e 8 mm, utilizzare le lame Anti-Vibranti WHISPERLINE.
  • In quali casi si consiglia di utilizzare gli utensili JETCUT con refrigerazione interna?
    Gli utensii JETCUT sono consigliati per qualsiasi pressione del refrigerante applicata (10 - 340 bar) e per qualsiasi lavorazione, dato che garantiscono un flusso del refrigerante costante ed affidabile direzionato esattamente sul tagliente, migliorando sensibilmente durate e gestione del truciolo.
  • What are ISCAR’s priorities for PARTING OFF?
    • For general applications up to 38mm part diameter, use DO-GRIP style double-ended inserts
    • Above 38mm: Use TANG GRIP style –single ended insert
    • Up to 40mm diameter: Use PENTA IQ , a highly economical insert with 5 cutting edges
  • What is the best grade for machining steel (ISO P)?
    • IC808/908
    What is the best grade for machining stainless steel (ISO M)?
    • C830/5400
  • What is the best insert geometry / chipformer for machining steel?
    • Use "C" geometry, for example DGN 3102C
    What is the best insert geometry / chipformer for machining stainless steel?
    • Use "J" geometry, for example DGN 3102J
  • What are the most recommended tools and inserts for machining miniature parts?
    • First choice is ISCAR DO-GRIP style (double-ended inserts) which has positive geometry, for example DGN 3102J & DGN 3000P
      * Use tools with Short Head dimensions, for example DGTR 12B-1.4D24SH
    • Second choice is to use ISCAR PENTA CUT, an economical insert with 5 cutting edges, for example :
      * PENTA 24N200J020 IC1008 (insert)
      * PCHR 12-24 (tool)
  • What is the best tool for heavy duty applications?
    • Use ISCAR TANG GRIP (single ended) insert – choose width according to part diameter
    • For heavy duty applications ISCAR offers 5-12.7mm insert widths
    • IC830 is the most suitable grade
    • Recommended insert geometry /chipformer is "C" type
  • How to reduce the bur on the part?
    • Use an R or L style of insert - these inserts have a lead angle, so the cutting edge is not straight
    • Also use a positive cutting rake, for example: DGR -3102J-6D (6D =6 degrees lead angle)
    • It is highly recommended to reduce the feed by 50% at the final cut
  • How to improve insert lifespan?
    Analyze the failure phenomena and choose grade accordingly:
    Wear: use a harder grade such as IC808 or 807
    Breakages: choose a harder grade such as IC830
  • Which is the best insert for an interrupted cut?
    Use a negative cutting rake, "C" chipformer and IC830 grade
  • How to improve chip control when long chips appear?
    • Select the correct chipformer and cutting parameters in order to obtain good chip formation
    • Choose a more aggressive chipformer
    • To increase feed, please refer to ISCAR user guide
  • How to improve part straightness and surface?
    • Use neutral insert and a stable tool with the minimum overhang needed
    • Adjust the cutting parameters
  • What is the recommended coolant flow rate?
    Depends on diameter. For example, the minimal flow rate for 6 mm SUMOCHAM is 5 liters per minute. For 20 mm, the minimal flow rate require is 18 liters per minute. For more information, please refer to SUMOCHAM user guide in our catalogue, page 491.
  • What is the recommended coolant pressure?
    Depends on diameter and tool length. For example, the minimal pressure for 6 mm SUMOCHAM on 8xD is 12 bar. For 25 mm SUMOCHAM on 12xD, the minimal pressure required is 4.5 bar. For more information, please refer to SUMOCHAM user guide in our catalogue, page 491.
  • What straightness can be achieved with the SUMOCHAM line?
    With a stable set-up, deviation may vary from 0.03 mm to 0.05 mm for each 100 mm of drilling depth. Important: Achieved results may vary due to machine, fixture, adaptation, etc.
  • What is the correct deep drilling cycle with the pre-hole and the next tool?
    In order to avoid mistakes, it is best to prepare the pre-hole with the same geometry that you intend to use for the subsequent deep drilling operation. For a more detailed explanation, please refer to our catalogue, page 492.
  • Is it possible to make boring operation with SUMOCHAM?
    No, the SUMOCHAM family is not designed for boring operations. Failure of the tool and insert may occur.
  • What is the recommended geometry for titanium?
    The first choice is ICG. The second choice is ICP.
  • Is it possible to regrind SUMOCHAM heads?
    Yes, ICP/ICK/ICM/ICN geometries can be reground up to three times. Please see a detailed explanation on pages 502-504 in our catalogue. Note: FCP/HCP/ICG/ICH geometries can be reground only at TEFEN.
  • What is the maximum permitted run-out for SUMOCHAM?
    To achieve best performance and tool life, radial and axial run-out should not exceed 0.02 mm. A detailed user guide can be found in our catalogue, starting on page 490.
  • Is it possible to use SUMOCHAM for interrupted cut operations?
    SUMOCHAM cannot withstand interrupted cut operations. Loss of clamping force of the tool may happen, eventually leading to falling out of the insert.
  • What solution does ISCAR recommend for hard materials?
    For hard materials we recommend our SCD-AH solid carbide drills made from IC903 grade, or a semi-standard option for SUMOCHAM line, the ICH heads.
  • What type of adapter is recommended?
    The recommended adapter is the one that is most suited for the tool's shank. For example, if the shank is round, the most accurate adapter would be of the HYDRO type. Please refer to page 829 in our catalogue.
  • What should be the maximum exit be for the SUMOCHAM exit hole?
    The exit for the materials should not be more than 2-3 mm less than the diameter edge of the insert.
  • What is your recommended solution for aluminum machining?
    Answer: Depends on the application. SUMOCHAM line has ICN inserts, which offer a dedicated solution for rilling non-ferrous materials.
  • What are the criteria to look for to indicate when SUMOCHAM heads are worn out?
    It is best to measure wear on a microscope. Additional indicators for wear are illustrated on page 493 in our catalogue.
  • Which hole is considered as "short" and which as "deep"?
    Commonly used terms “short” and “deep” holes do not have a strict definition. It is widely accepted that drilling a hole of diameter d and (10…12)×d or higher in depth relates to deep drilling, while holes having depth up to 5×d, are short.
    In the terminology used by ISCAR, only a drilling depth of 12×d and higher is considered as deep. Consequently, the holes with shallower depths are short.
  • What is a cutting length series of drills?
    The drills vary in their cutting length. In general, tool manufacturers normalize the drills by cutting length series (short, regular, etc.), according to the ratio "cutting length/drill diameter". At ISCAR, drills intended for machining short holes are usually divided into the following length series: short (up to 3×d), long (4×d and 5×d) and extra-long (8×d and 12×d).
  • Why is a center drill referred to as a "countersink" and even as a "spot drill"?
    A center drill is needed for forming a conical hole in workpieces. This hole is used for supporting the workpieces by the centers of machine tools. One of the methods for forming conical holes is countersinking - machining by a specially designed cutter, a countersink. In fact, the center drill performs a combination of two operations simultaneously: drilling and countersinking. Therefore, the center drill is often referenced as a “combined countersink”. Sometimes, a center drill is considered a spot drill; however this specification is not strictly correct. A spot drill only drills but a center drill performs two operations: drilling and countersinking, therefore “spot a hole” and “drill a center hole” are not the same.
  • In center drilling, does a Multi-Master replaceable solid carbide head offer a real alternative to reversible high-speed steel (HSS) drill bits?
    Reversible HSS center drill bits are the most popular tools for center drilling: they are simple, always available for purchase, and feature low prices. The Multi-Master replaceable solid carbide head enables significant increases in cutting speed and feed, resulting in higher productivity and reduced machining costs, especially in cases of machining difficult-to-cut material. In addition, the tool life of the head is much longer. A brief economical calculation will show the preferred alternative for each case.
  • Is a chip-splitting cutting geometry suitable for drills of a relatively small diameter?
    A chip-splitting cutting geometry may be used in drilling tools. There are different drill cutting edge designs with chip splitting grooves, for example the SUMOCHAM ICG heads. Splitting chips into small segments improves chip evacuation and cutting speed. Under the same cutting conditions, a straight-style edge ensures better surface finish. Therefore, chip-splitting geometry is suitable mainly for rough drilling operations.
  • What are the advantages of the concave, pagoda-shape, cutting edges of SUMOCHAMIQ exchangeable drilling heads?
    The shape of the cutting edge substantially enhances the self-centering capability of the drill and enables drilling holes of depths up to 12×d directly into solid material, without pre-drilling a pilot hole. In addition, the HCP geometry facilitates gradual penetration into machined material which reduces the cutting forces, obtaining better hole quality – particularly when the drilling depth is significant.
  • What are the advantages of chamfering rings for drills?
    A chamfering ring is intended for mounting in the body of a standard drill in the desired position according to the drill tip. The ring mounting configures a combined holemaking tool that can perform drilling and chamfering in one operation.
  • Is it possible to regrind LOGIQ3CHAM 3 flute exchangeable drill heads directly at the customers' premises?
    Regrinding new geometries of these 3 flute drill heads is complicated and cannot usually be done locally.
  • What are the ISCAR products for deep drilling?
    ISCAR's line of deep drilling tools comprises gundrills and drills for ejector and single tube (STS) systems.
  • Can the SUMOCHAM drills be mounted in FLEXFIT threaded adaptors and tool holders?
    ISCAR produces modular drills combining SUMOCHAM design with a FLEXFIT threaded connection to enable mounting. A wide range of FLEXFIT threaded adaptors and flatted shanks ensures configuration of the assembled drill with a maximally shortened overhang, so that the modular drills can be used on machines with limited space for tooling (for example on multi-spindle and Swiss-type machines).
  • Do the terms "step drill" and "subland drill" mean the same?
    Not exactly. A step drill is a drill with cutting areas of different diameters to generate a step-diameter hole in one pass. A subland drill is a solid twist step drill, which features different lands for each diameter. However, a step twist drill has the same land along the drill body. Usually, there are two drilling areas in a subland drill. A subland drill is a sub type of step drill.
  • When should a carbide guide pad in a deep drilling tool be reversed or replaced?
    Even though the guide pads do not cut material, they, like carbide cutting inserts or heads, are subject to wear. A damaged or worn out guide pad causes unacceptable roughness and scratching of the machined hole surface.
    The pads should be thoroughly examined visually before applying a drill. If a pad is damaged or the pad working corner wears out approximately 70% of the corner width, the pad should be reversed or replaced.
  • Quando sono richieste operazioni di alesatura?
    Le operazioni di alesatura sono necessarie quando vengono richieste tolleranze e/o finiture superficiali molto strette e non possono essere raggiunte con la semplice foratura.
  • Per quali tolleranze sono disponibili gli alesatori standard?
    Gli alesatori standard ISCAR sono progettati per tolleranze IT7.
  • Gli alesatori standard sono disponibili per tutti i materiali?
    Gli alesatori standard sono disponili per la maggior parte dei materiali, ma per materiali ISO N e ISO S si consiglia di contattare direttamente ISCAR per la miglior soluzione possibile.
  • Qual è la durata media di un alesatore?
    Dato che molti fattori influiscono sulla durata (materiale, refrigerante, tolleranza, runout ecc) è molto difficile stimare la durata. Occorre quindi valutare ogni caso individualmente.
  • Risulta possibile alesare senza refrigerante?
    No. Alesare senza refrigerante è impossibile; la soluzione ideale è la refrigerazione interna, ma la refrigerazione esterna è un'opzione.
  • Quanto sovrametallo occorre lasciare prima dell'operazione di alesatura?
    Il sovrametallo dipende dal materiale lavorato, il diametro di lavorazione e l'utensile utilizzato per la preparazione del foro. In generale, può variare da 0.15 a 0.4 mm.
  • Qual è il maggior runout possibile del mandrino?
    Generalmente, il maggior runout è circa 0.01 mm, ma dipende anche da dimensioni e tolleranze richieste.
  • Come incrementare la produttività per superleghe e materiali a base Nichel con i gradi ceramici ISCAR?
    ISCAR Offre un'ampia gamma di gradi ceramici, come IW7, per superleghe e materiali a base Nichel. I gradi ceramici ISCAR permettono di lavorare con velocità di taglio dieci volte superiori - da 150 m/min fino a 450 m/min. Questo incrementa sensibilmente la produttività.
  • Qual è la prima scelta delle geometrie ISCAR per lavorazioni di acciai?
    ISCAR ha introdotto tre nuove geometrie per finitura, lavorazioni medie e sgrossatura di acciai: F3P, M3P e R3P. Le geometrie, combinate ai gradi ISCAR SUMO TEC, assicurano maggior produttività, maggiori durate, miglior finitura superficiale e lavorazioni più affidabili. Le nuove geometrie generano temperature minori ed evitano il problema dell'incollamento del truciolo ad utensile e componenti. I trucioli vengono rotti in piccoli frammenti, evitando matasse intorno al pezzo e permettendo efficiente rimozione del truciolo dal convogliatore.
  • Come migliorare il controllo del truciolo con gli inserti CBN?
    Gli inserti CBN sono utilizzati principalmente per materiali con durezza tra 55 e 62 Rc. Gli inserti CBN convenzionali offrono un'ampia gamma di riporti piani e brasati che producono trucioli lunghi e arricciati in lavorazioni di acciai duri. Questi trucioli possono danneggiare la finitura del pezzo. La soluzione ISCAR è un nuovo inserto CBN con formatruciolo rettificato che assicura un ottimo controllo del truciolo in finitura e lavorazioni medie con elevata finitura superficiale.
  • Come ridurre le vibrazioni in lavorazioni con barre di barenatura con sporgenze superiori a 4xD?
    ISCAR offre una gamma di barre anti-vibranti con meccanismo interno di smorzamento delle vibrazioni. Questo riduce fino ad eliminare le vibrazioni utilizzando barre con sporgenze elevate. La nuova linea anti-vibrante è chiamata WHISPERLINE.
  • Come incrementare la produttività per ghise grigie con i gradi ceramici ISCAR?
    La ghisa grigia è universalmente riconosciuta come il materiale più diffuso nell'industria automobilistica. Per le lavorazioni di ghise grigie, ISCAR propone un'ampia gamma di gradi ceramici come IS6. Il grado IS6 è stato sviluppato appositamente per incrementare la produttività in lavorazioni di ghise grigie.
  • Qual è la prima scelta delle geometrie ISCAR per lavorazioni di acciai inox?
    ISCAR ha introdotto 3 nuove geometrie: F3M, M3M e R3M per finitura, lavorazioni medie e sgrossatura di acciai inox che combinate ai gradi ISCAR SUMO TEC, assicurano maggior produttività, maggiori durate, miglior finitura superficiale e lavorazioni più affidabili. La geometria F3M è dotata di angolo di spoglia positivo per un taglio dolce, minori forze di taglio e maggiori durate. La geometria M3M per lavorazioni medie è dotata di tagliente rinforzato ed angolo di spoglia positivo per taglio dolce e minori forze di taglio. La geometria R3M per sgrossatura di acciai inox con tagliente rinforzato ed angolo di spoglia positivo per minori forze di taglio.
  • Qual è l'effetto del refrigerante ad alta pressione?
    Il vantaggio principale degli utensili JETCUT è di erogare il refrigerante direttamente sulla zona di taglio per assicurare una refrigerazione efficiente per migliorare il controllo del truciolo ed aumentare le durate. I maggiori vantaggi dell'alta pressioni si riscontrano in lavorazioni di materiali come superleghe, acciai inox, titanio ecc
    Gradi Ceramici & Inserti
  • How to increase productivity of Ni-based and other superalloys with ISCAR ceramic grades?
    ISCAR has a wide range of ceramic grades, for example IW7, for machining Ni-based and other superalloys. Our ceramic grades have the ability to work 10 times faster in cutting speed, starting from 150M/min and going up to 450M/min which is 10 times higher than any conventional carbide inserts. This increases productivity dramatically.
  • Which chip formers does ISCAR recommend for steel machining?
    ISCAR has introduced three new chip formers for finishing medium and rough turning of steel: F3P, M3P and R3P. Combined with ISCAR’s SUMO TEC grades, the chip formers offer higher productivity, longer tool life, improved workpiece quality and more reliable performance. The new chip formers generate less heat and avoid the problem of chips attaching themselves to cutting tools and components. Chips are broken down into smaller pieces, preventing them from tangling around the workpiece and enabling more efficient removal from conveyor belts.
  • How to improve chip control with CBN inserts?
    CBN inserts are mainly for machining hard materials with high hardness - from 55 and up to 62 Rc materials. Conventional CBN inserts offer a wide range of brazed and flat tips that produce long and curled chips during the turning machining of hard steel, resulting in long chips that scratch the work piece and damaging the surface quality. The ISCAR solution is a new CBN insert with ground chip breaker on the cutting edge, which provides excellent chip control in medium to finishing applications with high surface quality.
  • How to reduce vibrations on boring bars with a high overhang of more than 4xBD?
    Throughout the world, machinists deal daily with problematic vibrations. ISCAR’s Research and Development department has designed and developed the WHISPERLINE range of anti-vibration tools to resolve this issue, including a boring bar with the dampening mechanism inside the body that eliminates and reduces vibrations when using bars with a high overhang.
  • How to increase productivity of gray cast iron with ISCAR ceramic grades?
    The most popular material in the automotive industry is gray cast iron. For machining gray cast iron, ISCAR offers a wide range of ceramic grades including IS6 SIALON inserts. Developed especially to increase productivity in gray cast iron, the IS6 SAILON grade can work 3 or 4 times faster in cutting speed - from 400M/min and up to 1200M/min which is 3 times higher than any conventional carbide inserts. This increases productivity dramatically.
  • What is ISCAR’s first choice in chip formers for stainless steel?
    ISCAR has introduced three new chip formers: F3M, M3M and R3M for finishing, medium and rough turning stainless steel. Combined with the most advanced SUMOTEC grades, the chip formers provide higher productivity, tool life and performance reliability. The F3M Chipformer has positive rake angles for smooth cutting, reduced cutting forces and insert wear, leading to dramatically increased tool life. The M3M Chipformer is designed for medium machining of stainless steel with reinforced cutting edge and Positive rake angle, to reduce cutting forces and ensure smooth cutting. The R3M Chipformer for chip breakers is designed for rough machining of stainless steel with reinforced cutting edge and positive rake angle, to reduce cutting forces.
  • What is the effect of high-pressure coolant?
    JETCUT tools have the ability to supply coolant directly into the cutting zone, ensuring high coolant efficiency, improved chip control, reduced heat and longer insert life. The high pressure coolant effect is applied to the machining of sticky and gummy materials such as super alloys, stainless steel, titanium etc.
  • Qual è il grado più adatto alla lavorazione di acciai inox
  • Qual è il grado più adatto alla lavorazione di superleghe?
  • Qual è il grado più adatto alla lavorazione su macchine con velocità ridotta ed instabili?
  • Qual è il minor passo consigliato per il profilo del filetto?
    Maggiore della dimensione dell'oning
  • Perché il rompitruciolo non agisce?
    Apparentemente la profondità di taglio non è sufficiente, quindi il rompitruciolo è inefficiente
  • Come si può migliorare il controllo del truciolo?
    Migliorare il controllo del truciolo è possibile con la corretta scelta dell'avanzamento: Radiale; Assiale; Alternato Radiale Assiale
  • Come si possono ridurre i tempi di processo?
    Utilizzare inserti multi-dente (2M, 3M). Questi inserti assicurano un minor numero di passate, riducendo i tempi di taglio. Sono disponibili per profili e passi più diffusi e rappresentano un'ottima celta per filettature economiche in produzioni massive.
  • Qual è la differenza tra profilo parziale e profilo completo?
    Profilo Parziale:
    • può lavorare per differenti filetti standard ed è adatto ad un'ampia gamma di passi con stesso angolo (60° o 55°).
    • Inserti con raggi ridotti adatti per il minor passo disponibile della gamma.
    • Per completare il diametro interno/esterno è necessaria un'operazione aggiuntiva.
    • Sconsigliato per lavorazioni massive.
    • Elimina la necessità di differenti inserti.
    Profilo completo:
    • lavora il profilo completo del filetto.
    • Adatto ai passi più diffusi.
    • Ideale per produzioni massive.
    • Lavora un singolo profilo.
  • Come scegliere la piastrina corretta?
    Utilizzare piastrine con inclinazione positiva in lavorazioni di filetti destri con utensili destri e di filetti sinistri con utensili sinistri. Utilizzare piastrine con inclinazione negativa in lavorazioni di filetti destri con utensili sinistri e di filetti sinistri con utensili destri. Utilizzare piastrine AE per utensili esterni destri e interni sinistri. Utilizzare piastrine Al per utensili interni destri ed esterni sinistri.
  • What is a tool material?
    In cutting tools, a tool material is the material from which the active (cutting) part of a tool is produced. This is the material that directly cuts the workpiece during machining.
  • How does ISCAR designate its tool materials?
    ISCAR’s system of designating tool material grades uses letters and numbers. The letters indicate the material group:
    IB – cubic boron nitride (CBN)
    IC – cemented carbide and cermet
    ID – polycrystalline diamond (PCD)
    IS – ceramics
    DT – cemented carbide with dual (CVD+PVD) coating
  • Cos'è un grado di metallo duro?
    Una combinazione di carburo, ricopertura e trattamento di post-ricopertura. Solo uno di questi componenti - il carburo - è l'elemento essenziale del grado. Gli altri sono opzionali. Il carburo cementato è un materiale composito che comprende particelle cementate da materiale legante (principalmente cobalto). I carburi cementati maggiormente utilizzati nel mondo dell'utensileria integrano un rivestimento anti-usura e sono conosciuti come "gradi ricoperti". Ci sono vari processi di trattamento che vengono eseguiti sul carburo già ricoperto (per esempio, la superficie della spoglia di un inserto). "Carburo cementato" può riferirsi sia al substrato di un grado ricoperto sia ad un grado non ricoperto.
  • ISCAR come classifica i gradi?
    Lo standard internazionale ISO 513 classifica i materiali da taglio in base alla gamma applicativa in riferimento ai materiali da lavorare. ISCAR ha adottato questo standard e utilizza lo stesso approccio nello sviluppo di nuove soluzioni. I carburi cementati sono materiali molto duri che possono tagliare la maggior parte dei materiali, che sono più soffici. Alcuni gradi dimostrano migliori performance rispetto ad altri in lavorazioni di specifiche classi di materiali.
  • I gruppi applicativi dei gradi a norma ISO 513 includono lettere e cifre dopo la lettera? Cosa significano?
    Le lettere definiscono la classe dei materiali da lavorare. Le cifre definiscono il rapporto durezza-tenacità su scala arbitraria. Ad un numero maggior corrisponde un maggior grado di tenacità ed un minor grado di durezza.
  • Cosa è la tecnologia SUMOTEC?
    SUMO TEC è uno specifico trattamento di post-ricopertura sviluppato da ISCAR. Il trattamento assicura superfici uniformi, minimizzando gli stress interni e le impurità del rivestimento. In rivestimenti CVD, a causa della differenza nei coefficienti di espansione termica tra il substrato ed i livelli di rivestimento, vengono generati stress di tensione. Anche in rivestimenti PVD si generano impurità. Questi fattori influiscono negativamente sul rivestimento, riducendo le durate inserto. Le tecnologie di post-ricopertura SUMOTEC riducono sensibilmente fino a rimuovere questi difetti, assicurando così maggiori durate e maggior produttività.
  • Perchè i rivestimenti PVD con nano strati sono considerati così efficienti?
    I rivestimenti PVD sono stati introdotti alla fine degli '80. Con l'utilizzo delle più avanzate nanotecnologie, i rivestimenti PVD hanno fanno enormi passi in avanti nella risoluzione di problemi molto complessi. Infatti è stato possibile sviluppare nuove tipologie di rivestimenti nano stratificati resistenti all'usura. Questi rivestimenti sono composti da combinazioni di strati con spessore fino a 50nm (nanometri) che incrementano sensibilmente la forza del rivestimento.
  • La descrizione dei gradi ISCAR generalmente inizia con le lettere "IC". Come mai il grado DT7150 (DO-TEC) ha una descrizione differente?
    La tecnologia di rivestimento ha due principali aree - CVD: deposizione chimica da vapore e PVD: deposizione fisica da vapore. Lo sviluppo tecnologico permette di combinare entrambi i metodi - CVD e PVD - per i rivestimenti inserto, che permette un maggior controllo delle proprietà del rivestimento. Il grado ISCAR DT7150 è composto da un tenace substrato e da un doppio rivestimento MT CVD (CVD a Media Temperatura) e TiAlN PVD. Il grado è stato inizialmente sviluppato per incrementare la produttività in lavorazioni di ghise dure.
  • Why are several of ISCAR’s carbide grades referred to by customers as “sun tan” grades?
    Some PVD coated (like IC840 or IC882) and CVD coated (IC5820, for example) carbide grades, originally developed for machining ISO S and ISO M materials, feature a bronze chocolate color. The “sunbathed” appearance of the inserts produced from these grades resulted in the shop talk definition “sun tan” grade.
  • What are the fundamental differences between these commonly used definitions: "ultra-fine", "submicron" and "fine" carbide grades?
    Each of these definitions relate to the size of the carbide grains in a carbide grade substrate. Sizes may slightly differ for various standards and norms of carbide product manufacturers, but usually they refer to the following:
    1 - 1.4 μm (40 - 55 μin) grain size         fine grade
    0.7 - 0.9 μm (27.5 - 35 μin) grain size   submicron grade
    0.2 - 0.6 μm (8 - 24 μin) grain size        ultra-fine grade

    In addition, depending on the grain size, there are medium, coarse, extra coarse and even nano carbide grades. The last, for example, features extremely small grain sizes: less than 0.2 μm or 8 μin.
  • Which terms are correct: "cemented carbide", "tungsten carbide", "wolfram carbide" or "hard metal"?
    All four terms refer to cemented tungsten carbide. "Tungsten" is another name for the chemical element Wolfram. (Incidentally, the word origin is Swedish, meaning "heavy stone").
    In the field of cutting tool manufacturing, the terms "cemented carbide", "tungsten carbide" and the abbreviation "HM" (hard metal) are usually used.
  • What are the main properties of ceramics as a cutting tool material?
    When compared with cemented carbides, ceramics possess considerably higher hot hardness and chemical inertness. This means that ceramics ensure much greater cutting speeds and eliminate diffusion wear. Ceramics have lower crack resistance – this feature emphasizes the importance of cutting-edge preparation as a factor of successful machining.
  • What are the main types of ceramics?
    There are two main types of ceramics:
    • Based on aluminum oxide or alumina (Al2O3)
    • Based on silicon nitride (Si3N4)
    Aluminum oxide based ceramics include pure ("oxide" or "white"), mixed ("black"), and reinforced ceramics.
    Silicon nitride based ceramics can be divided into several types, according to content, mechanical properties and production technology. SiAlON ("sialon") ceramics generally fall into this category.
    As cutting materials, ceramics lie between cemented carbides and super hard materials such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and cubic boron nitride (CBN), according to their toughness-hardness characteristics.
  • What are the advantages of whisker-reinforced ceramics?
    Whisker-reinforced or "whisker" ceramics are aluminum oxide based ceramics that are reinforced by uniformly dispersed silicon carbide whiskers. Whisker ceramics have higher hardness and strength than unreinforced alumina based ceramics, which improves cutting performance.
  • What is sialon?
    Sialon or, more accurately, SiAlON, is a type of ceramic comprising silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). SiAlON may be considered as a type of silicon nitride based ceramic but features less toughness and higher oxidation resistance. It is simpler to produce SiAlON than to produce other silicon nitride based ceramics.
  • What is cermet?
    The word "cermet" is made from "ceramic" and "metal". It designates an artificial composite material usually manufactured by powder metallurgy technology. Cermet is a type of cemented carbide where hard particles are represented by titanium-based compounds instead of the tungsten carbides that characterize the cemented carbides commonly used in cutting tools. When compared with tungsten carbides, cermet has higher resistance to abrasive and oxidation wear but its toughness is considerably smaller. In addition, cermet is very sensitive to thermal load.
  • What is the difference between CBN and PCBN?
    Both CBN and PCBN relate to Boron Nitride (BN) - a polymorph material formed by two chemical elements. Boron Nitride exists in different crystal structures. One is cubic and the BN in this structure is Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN).
    As a cutting tool material, CBN is used as a polycrystalline compound, where CBN particles and an added binder are sintered together. The material produced is "Polycrystalline CBN" or simply "PCBN". The percentage of CBN can vary in different PCBN grades. In the context of cutting tools, the commonly used abbreviations "CBN" and "PCBN" may be considered as synonyms.
  • When giving recommendations about cutting data, how does ISCAR classify engineering materials?
    ISCAR material groups are organized in accordance with international standard ISO 513 Classification and application of hard cutting materials for metal removal with defined cutting edges — Designation of the main groups and groups of application and technical guides VDI 3323 Anwendungseignung von Harten Schneidstoffen (English: Information on applicability of hard cutting materials for machining by chip removal). VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure) is the Association of German Engineers.
  • The ISO 513 standard specifies cutting tools intended for machining stainless steel as the tools that apply to Group M. Is this correct?
    In ISO 513, Group M (yellow identification color) relates to the tools for machining stainless steel of austenitic and austenitic/ferritic (duplex) structure. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steel belong to Group P (blue color) and starting cutting data should be set accordingly.
  • Is machining titanium like machining austenitic stainless steel?
    Commercially pure titanium and, with some applications, α- or α-β- titanium alloys may be machined like austenitic stainless steel but not treated β- and near-β- alloys.
  • What is “titanium beta”?
    “Titanium beta” is an expression that occurs in aerospace industry lingo/shop talk. It can refer to two different materials - a β-annealed α-β- titanium alloy or, rarely, a β-alloy. Therefore the expression should be exactly specified before using it, or even avoided to prevent possible misunderstanding.
  • Why is the machinability of materials from ISO M and S groups considered together?
    These materials are difficult-to-cut materials and have common features that affect machinability: low thermal conductivity and high specific cutting force.
  • Does cast iron relate to ISO Group K?
    The majority of cast iron grades (grey, nodular, malleable) relate to Group K.
    When machining hardened or chilled cast iron, appropriate cutting tools (and corresponding cutting data) should be chosen as recommended for Group H.
    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) in its soft condition is connected with Group P.
    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) in its hardened condition is connected to Group H.
  • Which steel is pre-hardened and which is hard?
    Steel producers supply steels in different delivery conditions: annealed, pre-hardened, hardened. The loosely defined term "pre-hardened steel" relates to steel that is hardened and tempered to a hardness that is not too high - generally this is less than HRC 45. The terms "pre-hardened" and "hard steel" are allied to cutting tool development and the ability of the tools to cut material. Commonly, the steels can be divided into the following conditional groups depending on their hardness:
    • Soft (annealed to hardness up to HB 250)
    • Pre-hardened to two ranges:
      - HRC 30-37
      - HRC 38-44
    • Hardened to three ranges:
      - HRC 45-49
      - HRC 50-55
      - HRC 56-63 and more

    As for "hard steel", usually it refers to steel hardened to HRC 60 and more.
  • What is Ebonite and how to machine this material?
    Ebonite is a hard vulcanized rubber containing a high percentage of sulfur. For the purpose of identifying a suitable tool and appropriate cutting data, Ebonite is characterized by ISCAR material group 30 (ISO N application class). To machine Ebonite effectively, we advise following ISCAR’s recommendations for this group.
  • Are hard metal and heavy metal the same?
    In metalworking, "hard metal" is a commonly used name for cemented carbide, which is a sintered hard material based on wolfram (tungsten) carbide. Cemented carbide is often referred as simply tungsten carbide. It is the main cutting tool material used today.
    Heavy metals are metals with high atomic weight or density. In the metalworking industry, the term “heavy metal” usually refers to heavy metal alloys, which are sintered composite materials containing 90% or more tungsten.
  • What is the difference between duplex and super duplex stainless steels?
    Duplex stainless steel has a two-phase metallurgical structure: austenitic-ferritic, approximately in equal shares.
    Super duplex stainless steel is a type of duplex stainless steel that contains an increased percentage of chromium and molybdenum for better corrosion resistance.
    From a machinability point of view, these steels are hard-to-cut.
  • Is machining common in manufacturing plastic products? What is the machinability of plastics?
    It is really hard to imagine life today without plastics - organic materials based on synthetic or natural high-molecular compounds (polymers). Plastic products surround us everywhere. Step by step, plastics have replaced traditional materials in many industrial fields, and today plastic is considered one of the most important structural materials. Manufacturing plastic parts is connected mostly with chemical processes; however, for some cases machining is also required. From the point of view of technology, there are three major classes of plastics: thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers. According to their use, plastics may be divided into commodity plastics and engineering plastics. Machining is more common for producing parts from engineering plastics, which are represented primarily by thermoplastics. Plastics have very good machinability. In comparison with metals, cutting plastics is performed usually with much higher speeds and feeds, while the applied cutting tools feature significantly less wear. However, selecting appropriate cutting tools is essential to obtain the accuracy required and excellent surface finish.
  • What is Vitallium and how to machine this material?
    Vitallium is a cobalt (Co)-chrome (Cr) alloy that contents approximately 60% of Co, 30% of Cr, 8% of molybdenum and some other elements. Vitallium was developed in the 1930's, and is now used mainly in joint replacement surgery and dental medicine. The alloy is hard-to-machine. Cutting data should be set according to recommendations, related to ISCAR material groups 34 and 35.
  • What is the difference between stainless steel and corrosion resistant steel?
    These definitions are generally used synonymously, along with definitions such as rust-resistant steel, inox steel, and non-corrosive steel.
    In fact, stainless steel may actually be divided into the following types according to their main functional features:
    • Corrosion-resistant steel, resistant to corrosion under normal conditions
    • Oxidation- or rust-resistant steel, resistant to corrosion under high temperatures in aggressive environments
    • Heat-resistant or high-temperature steel that does not change its strength under high temperature stress
    Therefore, corrosion-resistant steel can be considered as a type of stainless steel.
  • What are the main difficulties in machining workpieces from high temperature superalloys with honeycomb structures?
    The main difficulty in machining these workpieces is low workpiece stiffness, caused by the workpiece's thin-wall structure. Due to the honeycomb structure, a workpiece often cannot be clamped properly, which results in a further reduction in the entire technological system's rigidity.
  • What is Nitinol and what is its machineability?
    Nitinol, also referred to as Nickel Titanium or Ni-Ti, is an intermetallic alloy of Nickel and Titanium. Machining of Nitinol causes intensive abrasion and oxidation wear on the cutting tool. In addition, cutting speed substantially affects tool life - if the speed is too slow or too high, tool life drops dramatically. In general, tools intended for the ISO S application group are used for machining Nitinol.
  • Which stainless steel is considered as super austenitic?
    Super austenitic stainless steel is austenitic stainless steel, which features high content of Molybdenum (more than 6%) and increased percentage of Chromium and Nickel. The combination of materials results in high resistance to pitting corrosion. Usually austenitic stainless steel with pitting resistance and an equivalent number (PREN) of more than 40 is super austenitic. Generally, super austenitic stainless steel has less machinability characteristics when compared to austenitic stainless steel.
  • What is "pitting resistance equivalent number"?
    The "Pitting resistance equivalent number" (PREN) is a conditional value that characterizes theoretical resistance of stainless steel to pitting corrosion based on the stainless-steel content. There are several ways to calculate PREN by use of equations.
  • What is "mild steel"?
    "Mild steel" is another name for low carbon steel.
  • What are the main difficulties in machining Hadfield steel?
    Hadfield steel has a high content of Manganese: 12% in average, and therefore often referred to as "manganese steel". It has austenitic structure which ensures high abrasive wear resistance combined with excellent impact toughness and high ductility. When machined, this steel hardens and adversely impacts machinability. Due to the high ductility of austenite and its tendency to work hardening, Hadfield steel is a very difficult-to-cut material.
  • What should be taken into account when machining Beryllium and its alloys?
    In machining Beryllium (Be) and its alloys, the fine Beryllium dust generated while cutting the material can be dangerous to health. It is essential to use machine tools equipped with appropriate chip collecting units.
    Due to Beryllium’s high brittleness, the machined surface may be damaged during machining by microcracks and microflow. To avoid surface damage, the machining process should be under control - rigid workpiece clamping and eliminating vibrations are extremely important.
    Beryllium bronze, which is also known as beryllium copper or BeCu, has good machinability. When machining this alloy, users should follow ISCAR's recommendations regarding the cutting data that relates to copper alloys.
  • What is Zamak and how to machine it?
    Zamak, also referred to as ZAMAK, ZAMAC, or Zamac, is a group of zinc-based alloys. The principal alloying elements are aluminum, magnesium and copper. These alloys feature good machinability and their cutting usually does not cause difficulties. ISCAR's tools for the ISO N group of applications are recommended for machining Zamak.
    Tool Holding
  • What is a tool holder?
    A tool holder is a device (a tool arrangement) for mounting a cutting tool in a machine tool. One of the tool holder ends carries the cutting tool while the other ends is clamped into the machine tool. Therefore the tool holder acts as an interface between the machine tool and the cutting tool.
  • Are the terms “tool holding” and “tooling” synonymous?
    “Tool holding” is also referred to as “toolholding” and usually relates to tool holding systems that comprise various tool holders, such as arbors, chucks or adaptors, and their accessories (extensions, reducers, rings, sleeves, etc).
    “Tooling” is a much broader definition. “Tooling” can refer to cutting tools together with tool- and work holding arrangements that are intended for a machine tool. “Tooling” relates sometimes to tool management and in certain circumstances it refers to tool holding systems.
  • Does ISCAR supply work holding devices?
    No, ISCAR does not supply work holding devices. ISCAR’s products are cutting tools, tool holding, and tool management systems.
  • Does ISCAR provide tool holders with polygonal taper shank?
    Yes. These tool holders are represented by ISCAR’s CAMFIX family.
  • What are the advantages of thermal (heat) shrink holders?
    The advantages of tool holding, based on clamping tools with cylindrical shanks with the use of heat shrink fitting, are as follows:
    • High accuracy
    • High rigidity
    • Excellent repeatability
    • Reaches deep cavities due to slim holder design
    • Balanced design and assembly’s symmetrical shape eliminate the production of centrifugal forces at high rotational speeds
  • Are ISCAR’s thermal shrink holders suitable for tools with steel shanks?
    Yes. ISCAR’s SRKIN thermal shrink holders are intended for clamping tools with shanks made from cemented carbide, high speed steel (HSS) and steel. The SRKIN product line is fitted DIN69882-8, which is the shrink holder market standard.
    ISCAR also produces SRK slim design shrink holders. SRK holders can be used for steel shanks but we recommend using them for carbide shanks.
  • Does ISCAR produce heating units for mounting cutting tools in thermal shrink holders?
    Yes, ISCAR produces the induction heating unit for thermal shrink tool holding. In addition to this unit, ISCAR provides its simplified, “starter” version, which was designed to help the end-user purchase the shrink holding technology in a low cost device.
  • What are the main design features of X-STREAM SHRINKIN products? In which field would applying these products be the most effective?
    X-STREAM SHRINKIN is a family of thermal shrink chucks with coolant jet channels along the shank bore. The family utilizes a patented design for holding tools with shanks, made from cemented carbide, steel or high-speed steel (HSS). The new chucks combine the advantages of high-precision heat shrink clamping with coolant flow, directed to cutting edges. X-STREAM SHRINKIN has already shown excellent performance in milling aerospace parts, particularly titanium blades and blisks (bladed discs), and especially in high speed milling. In machining deep cavities, the efficient cooling provided by the new chucks substantially improves chip evacuation and diminishes chip re-cutting.
  • What are the SPINJET products and where they are used?
    ISCAR’s SPINJET is a family of coolant-driven compact high speed spindles for small diameter tools. It is a type of “booster” for upgrading existing machines to high speed performers. Depending on pressure and coolant flow rate, the spindles maintain a rotational speed of up to 55000 rpm. The versatile SPINJET products have been successfully integrated in tooling solutions for milling, drilling, thread milling, engraving, chamfering, deburring, and even fine radial grinding. The SPINJET spindles are recommended for tools up to 7 mm (.275 in) in diameter, however the optimal diameter range is 0.5-4 mm (.020-.157 in).
  • Does ISCAR deliver tool holders with identification chips?
    ISCAR’s tool holders with HSK shanks incorporate holes for radio-frequency identification chips (RFID). ISCAR’s CAMFIX tool holders with polygonal taper shank of nominal size C4 (32 as specified by ISO 26623-1) and more are produced with this hole.
    ISCAR can provide RFID chip mounting for all types of tool holder by special request.
    Note: It is essential to adjust the tool holder after mounting an RFID chip.
  • Does ISCAR supply boring heads with digital displays?
    Yes. ISCAR’s ITSBORE family contains adjustable boring heads with digital displays. These heads feature high adjusting accuracy and a simple adjusting process. A clear digital display with a mm/inch value display selection helps to prevent human errors.
  • What is the difference between mandrel and arbor?
    There is no fundamental difference - both terms refer to a bar, usually rotating, that is used for mounting a machined workpiece or a cutting tool.
  • Does ISCAR supply tool holding devices for tapping?
    Yes. Tool holding products for tapping include quick-change ER-type collets, holders with straight shanks and with 7:24 taper shanks, for example:
    • GTI toolholders and straight shanks with floating compression/tension mechanism
    • GTIN compact product line for tappng based on ER collets
    • TCS/TCC quick-change system (part of the ITSBORE modular system)
    Shop Talk
  • Metal cutting, like other fields of industrial activity, has its own professional jargon that is often used in shop talk. We decided to devote a separate section to more common jargon, even though they may appear already in the other FAQ sections.

    BAHCO - Swedish company founded by Johan Petter Johansson, inventor of the plumber pipe wrench. Today, the word "Bahco" is also used as a slang term for an adjustable pipe wrench.

    Ball mill – a ball-nose milling cutter. The correct meaning of “ball mill” is a grinding device for grinding materials into powder.

    "Black" and "white" cutting ceramics – a commonly used classification of ceramic cutting materials according to their color. Pure alumina-based cutting ceramics are "white," while mixed ceramics comprising a composition of alumina with titanium carbide are "black".

    Barrel - a barrel-shape milling cutter.

    Bull-nose – a milling cutter, a replaceable milling head or insert of toroidal cutting profile.

    Chip mouth, chip throat, chip slot and chip gullet - these terms relate to the area of a cutting tool designed for chip flow during machining. The chip mouth and chip throat are usually shaped holes, and the chip gullet is a groove. In rotating tools, the terms "chip mouth" and "chip throat" are more common in hole making, while the terms "chip slot" and "chip gullet" are used more in milling.

    Crest Cut End Mill - Slang term derived from "CREST-KUT®" end mills; refers to a specific design featuring a wavy cutting edge, which was initially introduced for high speed steel milling cutters.

    Cubic – metal removal rate (MRR) in cubic mm, cm or inches.

    Dogbone – a narrow double-ended insert, mainly in indexable parting and grooving tools. Typical examples of dogbone inserts are ISCAR's DO-GRIP and HELI-GRIP inserts.

    Facing, profiling, shouldering – In turning, these terms are used for specifying typical turning operations. In milling, they are "shop talk" words used instead of the full terms "face milling", "profile milling" and "shoulder milling".

    Feed mill – a fast feed (high feed) milling cutter.

    Grade –a specific type of cutting tool material. In particular, “carbide grade” relates to a type of cemented carbide.

    High positive – a feature of cutting geometry that relates mainly to the rake angle of a tool. For tools with high positive geometry, the rake angle is significantly greater than common values.

    InconelInconel is the trade name for a group of more than 20 metal alloys made by Special Metals Corporation. When followed by a number (e.g. Inconel 625), it is a specific material from a family of nickel-chromium-based high temperature alloys. Without a number following, Inconel often refers to a whole group of nickel-based superalloys.

    Inox – Inox steel is a stainless steel. The term "Inox" comes from "inoxydable", the French word for stainless or inoxidizable.

    Nirosta stainless steel, normally austenitic.

    Pecking – drilling or countersinking with peck feed.

    Plunger – a plunge milling cutter.

    Porky (porcupine) – an extended flute (long-edge) indexable milling cutter

    Positive insert – this may relate to two different features of an indexable insert:
    1. Insert where the insert bottom face is smaller than the insert top face.
    2. Inclination of the insert cutting edge that generates a positive axial rake of a tool, when the insert is mounted in the tool.
    This dual meaning sometimes causes serious misunderstandings.

    PH - precipitation hardening stainless steel.

    Rotabroach drill or simply "Rotabroach" – a trepanning cutting tool (an annular cutter). The origin of "Rotabroach" comes from the company Rotabroach Ltd, who started manufacturing and marketing such tools in the 1980’s.

    Ruthenium, ruthenium grade - a cemented carbide alloyed with ruthenium.

    Serrated edge – Tool or insert cutting edge with a serrated or wavy shape to ensure chip splitting action that achieves small short segment chips.

    Slocombe (Slocomb) drill – a center drill.

    Slotter in milling, this term defines slot milling cutter; however it normally refers to a type of planing machine tool.

    Slotting – Originally, this term defined a machining process where a single-point cutting tool moves linearly and piston wise, and a workpiece is fixed or moves only in linear direction. However, today this term relates more to slot milling.

    Slotting cutter – Slot milling cutter (see above)

    Spanner or wrench - Both words mean the same: a tool, mainly operated by hand, for tightening/untightening parts like bolts, nuts etc. or for preventing a rotational movement of the parts. "Spanner" is more common in UK English and "wrench" in US English.

    Titanium beta (β) – in most cases it is a beta-annealed α-β-titanium alloy, although sometimes it means a β-titanium alloy.

    Weldon - the cylindrical shank of a tool (usually a milling cutter) with one or two side flats for clamping and driving. This type of shank was originally introduced by Weldon Tool Co. in the 1920s.

    Whiskers - whisker-reinforced ceramic.

    Whistle notch - the cylindrical shank of a tool with an inclined side flat for clamping and driving.